Around the Great Lakes

Great Lakes coastal communities working towards more reslient coastlines

This page highlights projects and initiatives throughout the Great Lakes Region that are addressing coastal hazards and working towards more resilient coastlines. For more details or information, follow the links provided. 

Climate Resiliency Plan for Grant Park, Milwaukee County Parks

Milwaukee County Parks prepared a Climate Resiliency Plan for Grant Park on the coast of Lake Michigan. This plan provides an overview of environmental risks, impacts, and potential resiliency solutions for Grant Park. Their climate analysis looks at heat, precipitation and flooding, ice coverage, drought, coastal/bluff erosion, forests, and impacts to people and facilities. The Resilience Plan supports Milwaukee County Parks’ mission to “steward a thriving park system that positively impacts every Milwaukee County Park visitor.” Read the full plan here. 

McKinley Beach Reopened to the Public

After over three years of construction, Milwaukee’s McKinley Beach has reopened to the public. The beach was closed in 2020 due to riptide hazards, several near drownings, and multiple fatal drowning incidents. Milwaukee County Parks undertook a beach nourishment project to address erosion and riptide concerns by regrading the beach and lowering the depth of the water between the breakwaters. For more, see recent coverage by On Milwaukee and the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. 

New FEMA Special Flood Hazard Areas for Lake Michigan Coastal Communities​

Severe flood events can happen along the Lake Michigan coast when strong winds drive Lake water and waves on shore. FEMA has been rolling out new floodplain maps for several counties along the Lake Michigan coast that identify areas at high risk for coastal flooding. Maps that include new coastal flood zones are final, or “effective,” in four of Wisconsin’s Lake Michigan coastal counties. FEMA has issued (or is expected to issue) Letters of Final Determination (LFD) for six additional Wisconsin Lake Michigan coastal counties stating that there are new or updated flood insurance rate maps (FIRMs) for these areas.

More information and an approximate schedule of map releases by county is available at:

Global Center for Understanding Climate Change Impacts



The U.S. National Science Foundation has awarded $5 million to the University of Michigan to establish the Global Center for Understanding Climate Change Impacts on Transboundary Waters. Partners include Cornell University, the College of Menominee Nation, the Red Lake Nation, and the University of Wisconsin. The new center will initially focus on climate change adaptation in the Great Lakes region with a special emphasis on Indigenous and climate-vulnerable communities. Learn more at:


Ashland County Natural Flood Management Addendum to Hazard Mitigation Plan

Credit: Wisconsin Wetlands Association

In March 2023, Ashland County approved an addendum to the county’s Hazard Mitigation Plan. The addendum, titled A Strategy for Natural Flood Management & Climate Resilient Infrastructure in Ashland County, incorporates pre-disaster mitigation strategies focused on natural flood management into the existing Hazard Mitigation Plan. Section I describes vulnerability factors that apply to high-risk watersheds in Ashland County. Section II describes goals & strategies for addressing fluvial erosion hazards & degraded hydrology. This effort was funded by a 2019 FEMA Pre-Disaster Mitigation Advance Assistance Grant. Read the Addendum here.

Lake Metropark's Lakefront Path Moves Ahead with Property Access

The Kurtz Brothers, an Independence-based dredging company which owns the property directly west of Painesville Township Park, donated perpetual trail easement to Lake Metroparks park system. The Lake Metroparks Board of Park Commissioners authorized Executive Director Paul Palagyi to accept the donation. This will guarantee a bike path will be built along the lake despite the Lake Metroparks not owning the land. The new trail along the lake will bring unique opportunities for walking, jogging, biking, birdwatching, fishing, watching storms and viewing sunsets with a beautiful lake view. Construction will begin in spring 2023 and it will be in two phases. The second phase’s construction will not begin until 2024. Read more about this project here

Lakeview Wildlife Management Area

The National Audubon Society, Ducks Unlimited, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Great Lakes Commission, and the New York Department of Environmental Conservation have launched a habitat restoration project in the Lakeview Wildlife Management Area. This project will develop more semi-marsh habitat that will improve the native fish and bird habitat and limit invasive species. These management efforts will expand on previous efforts for restoration of the area and continue the work of the Department of Environmental Conservation. Before winter 2022, the project partners will conduct surveys to establish the current wildlife population of the park. Read more about this project here.

Cedar Point Causeway Wetlands

To help reduce excess phosphorus entering Lake Erie as well as create wildlife habitat, the city of Sandusky, Ohio has started a wetlands project on the west side of the Cedar Point Causeway. Funded by the State of Ohio and the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, this 30-acre project is expected to take five years to complete and cost $3.6 million. The constructed wetland will be built from dredged material sourced from Sandusky’s harbor and protected by a rock breakwall. The Corps of Engineers will begin dredging in the fall of 2022. The wetland will be monitored for 10 years post-construction, including invasive-species management. Read more about this project here.

Brandenburg Park Shoreline Restoration Project

Brandenburg park serves as an important community access point for the Chesterfield Township. The Brandenburg Park Shoreline Restoration Project includes the restoration of approximately 740-linear feet of hardened shoreline as well as 1.5-acres of nearshore habitat. Key features of this project include the installation of offshore habitat shoals as well as planting of submerged and emergent vegetation. These measures will improve habitat for fish and wildlife. This project is a collaborative effort between the Great Lakes Commission and Chesterfield Township and is funded by an approximately $1.3 million grant through the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative. Learn more about the project here.

Illinois Beach State Park Underwater Innovation

Due to winter storms and ice cover on Lake Michigan, the Illinois Beach State Park coastline has seen extreme erosion of their beaches and coastal environments. Recently, Illinois received funding from EPA Great Lakes Restoration Initiative to combat the issue. During the summer of 2017, the Army Corps of Engineers laid stones down just off the coast of the Illinois Beach State Park. These stones were placed in three 750-foot-lines, which created the innovative “rubble ridges.” These rubble ridges were installed to protect the beach from strong waves and coastal storms. In addition to preserving the coastline, the rubble strips are meant to provide a habitat for fish. An additional benefit of the rubble strips is that they do not obscure the beauty that is Lake Michigan. To read more about this inventive potential solution, check out the link here.

New York State's Coastal Lakeshore Economy & Resiliency (CLEAR) Initiative

CLEAR was created to help communities in New York State manage the impacts of rising water levels of Lake Ontario, the lower Niagara River, and the upper St. Lawrence River. CLEAR has a direct set of goals found on their webpage. These goals include creating resilient communities, rebuilding with the coastal environment in mind, educating shoreline property owners, improving coastal recreation and economies, and empowering local governments, organizations, and leaders. CLEAR plans to include community stakeholders in the development of long-term plans for coastal resilience. Outreach will include workshops and community events to educate communities on erosion and flood risks, while addressing solutions in green infrastructure. Read more about the CLEAR initiative here.

Milwaukee River Estuary Cleanup

The Milwaukee Estuary is contaminated due to years of pollution. The estuary is contaminated with PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and heavy metals that are held in the sediment and water of the rivers. The contaminates have negative effects on the wildlife, and humans have seen a disruption of the reproductive system and cancer. It was named an Area of Concern (AOC) in 1987. Since then, there has been a lot of progress made but it is still one of the most contaminated areas on the Great Lakes. Recently, the Estuary has received $400 Million in funding to help clean up the estuary. This project is estimated to remove 130,000 truckloads of material (read more about this here). Additionally, there is a new sediment contaminant facility being opened, as well as another round of dredging coming (read more about it here). These additional resources will bring the Milwaukee Estuary a step closer to clean water and beaches. Read more about additional projects, resources, and how you can help here. 

Klode Park Restoration in Whitefish Bay

In January 2020, a severe winter storm damaged the beach of Klode Park in Whitefish Bay, WI. The storm eroded almost the entirety of the beach, and in some areas the beach dropped off 10 feet. The community received a federal disaster restoration and mitigation grant from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). This grant covered 75% of the cost, while the Village of Whitefish Bay and Milwaukee equally split the remaining cost. The restoration efforts involved “burying large armor stone at the back of the beach and bottom of the bluff” (Eddie Morales) as a preventative measure to stabilize the coastline. Read the full article here.

Lake Huron Integrated Assessment

“The Huron County Extreme Lake Levels integrated assessment was one of four projects sponsored and overseen by the University of Michigan’s Graham Sustainability Institute, and kicked off in 2015” (Lynne Peterson). Its purpose was to help lakeshore communities develop adaptive strategies to address extremes in the fluctuating lake levels and climate variation. Six themes and 23 recommendations were developed out of this project. Now, 5 years later, we interviewed the project lead and author of the assessment to see what her thoughts were. Read more about the Integrated Assessment and the Interview here.

Cleveland Metroparks Recreates Lake Erie Shoreline

Cleveland Metroparks and other public agencies want to transform part of the city’s East Side lakefront from a hard, mean-looking edge of sheet piling and boulders into tranquil coves and wetlands sheltered by a new offshore isle”. Cleveland Harbor Eastern Embayment Resilience Study (CHEERS) is a year-long effort to understand how to protect the lakeshore and buffer them from severe storms and water level fluctuations. Cleveland Metroparks’ plan is to use sediment dredged from the Cuyahoga River to thicken the shoreline and create about 80 acres of new parkland. Read the article here.

Who Should Pay for Flood Mitigation Infrastructure?

Fluctuating water levels, severe storms, and increasing development in and along floodplains all exacerbate flooding issues. These community challenges raise the question of who’s responsibility is it to pay – private property owners or the government? In the Jefferson Chalmers neighborhood of Detroit, Michigan, high water levels on Lake Michigan caused canals in this area to overflow and flood the streets. One solution is to build the sea walls higher. “Currently, the seawalls along more than 75 percent of the neighborhood’s 300 waterfront parcels are inadequate to protect against a 100-year flood, Simmons said. City officials have told residents that they are responsible for reinforcing the seawall on their private property — a common local government policy that protects taxpayers from footing the bill for private property improvements.” Read the full article here and about another similar situation here.

Shoreline Special Improvement District

Euclid, OH along with 12 other communities have created the first shoreline special improvement district along Lake Erie, where private property owners can be eligible for “low-interest financing to build revetments or other shoreline structures to prevent waves from [eroding] their land during increasingly frequent heavy storms and periods of high water levels”. The City of Euclid, in particular, has been able to persuaded property owners to grant easements for a shoreline trail in exchange for government-funded erosion control structures. In order for communities to join this district, they and then individual homeowners must petition to be in the special improvement district. This district could provide funding for 30-50 property owners worth up to $10 million dollars. Learn more about this project here and here.

Public Park to be Established Along Undeveloped Lake Huron Waterfront

As part of the Lake Huron Coastal Preserve project, a 145 acre parcel along the Lake Huron coast near Tawas City, MI was purchased by Huron Pines, a Northern Michigan conservation group, and ownership will be turned over to the Alabaster Township in 2022. It was bought from a building supply manufacturing company, USG Corp., who had not been using it for mining purposes since 2000. This swath of natural shoreline “mature hardwood forest and wetland ecosystem work together as a filter to help protect the water quality of Lake Huron and support diverse plant and wildlife species, according to Huron Pines”. By turning this area into a park it will provide a place for community involvement, recreation, and coastal conservation opportunities for decades to come. Read the full story here.

Cuyahoga County Seeks Public Input to Increase Public Access to Shoreline

In Cuyahoga County, currently, 90% of the Lake Erie shoreline is private property and inaccessible to the public. Through the Lakefront Public Access Plan, the county aims to open 30 miles of shoreline focusing on “properties, roads and other infrastructure, and develop a network of interconnected bridges, roads, trails, boardwalks and paths…”. “The lake is our greatest asset, and strengthening our shoreline and providing improved access will benefit all of our residents,” Planning Executive Director Mary Cierebiej stated. One of the issues the County is looking to mitigate is discontent from lakeside property owners. So they have included a robust public engagement campaign involving online surveys, public meetings, and other forms of public engagement. Read more about it here.

Duluth Reconstructing Lakewalk to be Climate Resilient

Like many coastal cities, The City of Duluth, MN has experienced unprecedented coastal storms and floods in the past few years. This has caused large sections of their Lakewalk to be completely washed away. After many piecemeal repairs and $30 million in cumulative damages, they decided it was time to bring in the heavy artillery. “The first line of defense is an engineered wall of giant boulders that slopes into the water just behind a few of Canal Park’s hotels.” The top layer of rocks, weighing 8 to 9 tons each, are placed on top of and held in place by even bigger boulders, up to 12 tons each, which are buried in the lake. The new Lakewalk will be elevated a few feet from its original position providing new space for pedestrians and tourists. In total, this project, involving just the 1/2 mile strip in Canal park will cost about $17 million, of which over 2/3 will be paid for by state and federal emergency funds. Read the whole story here.

Historic Shanties in Fishtown Saved from High Water Levels in Michigan

In Leland, MI, sandwiched between Lake Michigan and the Leland River, there exists an old Fishtown built around the early 1990s. Many of its shanties have been threatened by rising water levels. The foundations on these buildings are deteriorating and if not replaced they will eventually fall into the River. Fishtown Preservation Society (FPS) is helping to raise money for their rehabilitation. In November of 2020, the Morris Shanty was reacquainted with its rehabilitated foundation. As the oldest shanty in Fishtown “it’s been a place where Fishtown’s commercial fishing nets have been mended and stored for decades and now is tied directly to the work of FPS’s two fishing boats, the Joy and the Janice Sue.” Read the full article here.

Michigan Communities Strategize Lakeshore Development Policies

Many of Michigan’s shorelines are experiencing severe erosion due to high water levels and more frequent and severe storms. In some towns, homeowners are scrambling to figure out a way to protect their homes from falling into the lake. This difficulty has led many beach communities to start creating zoning and development policies to prevent people from armoring the shores as well as building within a certain distance of the high watermark. In Grand Haven, MI “The new zoning bans shoreline protection other than fencing, though property owners can seek an exception if they can show the policy creates an ‘unnecessary hardship'”. Read more here.

Lower Fox River Cleanup

17 years and $1billion later, the Fox River cleanup is finally complete. This project involved the cleanup of sediment along 39 miles of the Lower Fox River and Green Bay, where paper mills lined the river. From the mid-1950s to 1971, paper companies used polychlorinated biphenyls, or manmade chemicals known as PCBs, to make carbonless copy paper, releasing nearly 700,000 pounds into the river. Starting in 2004 and over the life of the cleanup, 6.5 million cubic yards of contaminated sediment was removed, 10 billion gallons of water was treated and returned to the river, and 800,000 tons of sand was cleaned for reuse in the river. Current tests show that contaminants in the river have been reduced by about 90% since 2006 levels.

“We’re not only closing the door on more than two decades of work on a Superfund site, but we’re also making marked improvement to the Fox River Area of Concern through the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative,” said Kurt Thiede, regional administrator for EPA’s Region 5. Read the full article here.

Coastal Hazards of Superior (CHAOS)

CHAOS is a newly formed community of practice organized by the Coastal programs and Sea Grant programs in Minnesota and Wisconsin, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office for Coastal Management, and the Lake Superior National Estuarine Research Reserve. This group is an outlet for local community leaders, managers, researchers, and communicators to engage over concerns and share knowledge and resources about natural hazards that affect Lake Superior’s coastal communities in Minnesota and Wisconsin. Recent storms, flooding, and shoreline erosion have strained local communities, making CHAOS’s goal of building collaborations among groups impacted by these hazards even more important. 

CHAOS sends out a monthly newsletter filled with a compilation of resources, meeting notes, events, and current news. Membership is free and open to all. Read more here.

Community Resilience Action Network of Erie (CRANE)

CRANE was started in the City of Erie, Pennsylvania to increase literacy surrounding climate issues. Erie County includes 76 miles of shoreline, has experienced increasing vulnerabilities related to extreme weather events, and was identified as one of the nation’s top 10 fastest-warming cities. Their mission is to “Engage the community using education and collaboration to identify climate vulnerabilities and implement proactive responses that foster a vibrant and resilient region”. In 2018 they developed a 5-year climate action strategic plan to “make the Erie community more educated, resilient, and vibrant”.

This network is an alliance between multiple organizations coming together to support and create a climate-conscious community. It includes representatives from the City of Erie, the Erie County Department of Planning and Community Development, the Green Building Alliance, Pennsylvania Sea Grant, the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, and the Regional Science Consortium. Read more about CRANE.

Historic Building Relocation from Bluff Manistee, Michigan

Manistee, MI. The Orchard Beach State Park Pavilion. Photo Credit: MI DNRIn Manistee, MI in Orchard Beach State Park, a 400-ton, 80-year-old, historic, limestone pavilion will be moved inland to protect it from an eroding bluff line along Lake Michigan. In its current position, the pavilion sits about 50 feet from the edge of the bluff. If not moved, it would crumble into the lake. “Higher-than-average erosion in 2019, including a mudslide, coupled with increasingly high Lake Michigan water levels spurred Barry and the Department of Natural Resources into action to save the pavilion”.

The total cost for this project will amount to about $1.5 million dollars. Funds for the relocation of the pavilion will come from a combination of capital outlay funding from the DNR in addition to savings from the park. This option is less costly and more effective than armoring the bluff, which has other consequences for the adjacent shorelines. Read the article here.

Aquisition of Shoreland for Dune Conservation

The Land Conservation of West Michigan is hoping to buy 43 acres of land along the Lake Michigan shoreline. This would connect Flower Creek Dunes Nature Preserve to Meinert County Park creating 255 acres of contiguous shoreline. This conservation effort would protect a large part of Lake Michigan’s shoreline of which 75% is designated as critical duneland. This area is also a very important ecological habit for migrating butterflies and birds. “The addition of these backdunes would ensure that an indispensable natural connection within the landscape is protected forever,” April Scholtz, land protection director at the Land Conservancy of West Michigan.

Acquiring shoreland like this can help build resilience along the coast, as it keeps hazard areas as green space. It prevents development near the shore which causes erosion and it maintains native species along the shore which are better suited for the habitat and also inhibit coastal erosion. Read the full story.

Exploring Funding Options for Shore Protection

As a result of rising sea levels, Ogden Dunes, IN is looking for a way to pay for emergency repairs of the town’s sea walls. There are short-term and long-term funding opportunities that are available to them. Immediate funds can potentially be obtained by tax-deductible donations from residents. Another option is borrowing money in general obligation funds. However, the most likely short-term funding is to create a redevelopment commission and redevelopment authority. Longer-term finances may possibly be secured by setting up a conservancy district or seeking a voluntary referendum.  Read the full story here.

Special Improvement Districts in Ohio

In 2018, bipartisan legislation was introduced that would allow the formation of special improvement districts in Ohio in order to assist homeowners in addressing coastal erosion. Homeowners could sign a petition to form a special improvement district that would allow them to seek bonding to implement projects that would otherwise be too costly to pay for individually. In 2019, a group of mayors in Lake County, Ohio worked towards developing a shared special improvement district that would help property owners address erosion of Lake Erie’s shoreline within their municipalities. From 2018-2019, Eastlake, one of the municipalities in Lake County lost up to 50 feet of shoreline in some places. North Perry, another municipality lost about 60 feet at their village hall. The special improvement district would build capacity for the homeowners in these municipalities to increase their property’s resilience to erosion. Read the full story here.

In Wisconsin, neighborhood improvement districts could be a path forward based on current instruments available in the state. You can read more about this option on page 24 in Adapting to a Changing Coast (for Local Officials). 

Rosewood Beach Sand Nourishment Project

Rosewood Beach in Highland Park, Illinois is a highly used, community asset. Due to the high water levels on Lake Michigan, the beach has experienced severe sand erosion. Despite an offshore, protective revetment, continued erosion could have put park structures at risk. An emergency beach nourishment project was approved by the Park Board of Commissioners to address erosion of the shoreline and swimming coves. This nourishment project was intended to mitigate erosion from the high water levels and severe storms. Before the project began, the beach receded nearly 45 feet. Work on the project began in October 2019. Visit the Park District’s website for more details.

Village of Sodus Point Community Resilience Model

The Village of Sodus Point, NY used a visioning process piloted by the New York Sea Grant and the Genesee/Finger Lakes Regional Planning Council to help their community improve their resiliency to future flooding events. Part of the process included sharing a self-assessment checklist and hosting a public engagement workshop. Together, local residents, Village staff, Village/County department representatives, and topical experts all identified and prioritized actions that would make community assets more resilient to future flooding events. The workshop findings will be used to design rough project concepts with potential funding sources. Visit their website for more details.

Euclid Waterfront Improvement Plan

Through a public planning process, the city of Euclid, OH developed a Waterfront Improvement Plan that will provide public access for recreational opportunities, reclaim the City’s historic beaches, restore the coastal environment, and become a catalyst for economic investment and area-wide revitalization. The plan is organized in four sections; community vision, inventory and analysis of coastal influences and physical attributes, opportunities for improvement and enhancement, and steps for implementation. Euclid plans to take responsibility for shoreline erosion in exchange for easements that allow public access to the waterfront. Construction began in the fall of 2018 and will be completed in phases throughout 2019. Visit the City’s website for more information and updates.

Milwaukee County Coastline Management Policy

Funding from the Wisconsin Coastal Management Program will enable Milwaukee County Parks to inventory & prioritize the County’s coastal resources based on an assessment of the vulnerability of assets along 14 miles of the Lake Michigan shoreline to extreme weather. The coastline is currently impacted by coastal hazards such as high water levels, erosion, and coastal storms. The development of a Coastline Management Policy will assist with reducing shoreline recession, bluff failure, coastal erosion. Read the full story here.

New Buffalo Shoreline Alliance

The communities of Sunset Shores, Warwick Shores, Grand Beach and Forest Beach formed the New Buffalo Shoreline Alliance (NBSA) to address property damage and loss of coastal ecology due to severe beach erosion cause by high water levels on Lake Michigan. In partnership with the City of New Buffalo and the New Buffalo township, the NBSA submitted an application for a FEMA Hazard Mitigation Assistance Grant and a Great Lakes Fishery and Ecosystem Restoration Grant to help fund the installation of a series of submerged breakwaters. This project proposal includes an inter-jurisdictional effort that aims to restore the community’s beaches, economy, and coastal habitat. Read the full story here.

Samuel P. Myers Park

The Racine Health Department in collaboration with Parks, Recreation, and Cultural Services and the Department of Public Works implemented a revitalization project at Samuel P. Myers Park in Racine, Wisconsin. The effort was supported by volunteer involvement and community fundraising. The revitalization included stopping direct stormwater from reaching the shoreline, increasing accessibility to the lakefront, and restoring coastal wetlands. The City also eradicated invasive and other non-indigenous species, and planted more than 30,000 native plants that helped restore wildlife, flora and fauna. This project not only restored coastal habitat and a community resource but helped to increase coastal resiliency. Read the full story here. For more information and updates, you can also visit this site.

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